Oil tankers are designed for transportation of unrefined crude oil from the extraction place to the refineries is named Crude Oil Tanker (Carrier). The main difference with the product oil tanker is the size, the crude oil tank shipis bigger.
Some of the ships are so large that their load of crude oil, located in several cavernous tanks each the size of a cathedral, could satisfy the energy needs of a small city for a year. These ships are so big that some of them can’t enter the ports.
Tankers can be devided into the following types
Crude Oil Tankers
the mentioned Tanker types can be devided by size.
15000 – 30000 DWT Handysize generally identifies to a dry bulk vessel (or to a product tanker) with deadweight of about 15000–30000 tons. Handysize can be used to refer to the span of up to 60,000 tons, with Handymax being a subclassification, instead of being another category.
30000 – 50000 DWT Handymax being small bulk or oil tanker vessel of 30001 to 50000 dwt and it is known to be bigger than handyzise. Generally the vessel’s length is 183 m, breadth 32.2 m and design/scantling draught 11.0 m/12.2 m.
50000 – 80000 DWT Panamax is a vessel of the maximum size possible to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal. These tankers are useful for transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. Panamax vessels can transport crude and fuel oil in the Caribbean and Latin American region because they are able pass trough Panama Canal.
80000 – 120000 DWT Aframax is a crude oil tanker sized from 80 000 DWT to 120 000 DWT. AFRA (Average Freight Rate Assessment), by the tanker rate system, “max” means that this type of tanker is the biggest among the “AFRA” classified tankers. Usually these vessels are used in ports where the very large vessels can’t enter because of limitations of the draft.
120000 – 200000 DWT The largest vessel able to pass through the Suez Canal. Also there are restrictions for draft and height. Suez Canal authorities reguraly update these requirements. Suezmax tankers can access the most of world ports.
200000 – 299999 DWT Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) is a crude oil tanker sized from 200,000 to 299,999 dwt. More flexible than ULCCs because of their smaller size working in the Mediterranean, West Africa and the North Sea. These ships could sometimes be ballasted through the Suez Canal. VLCCs are usually used for the long-haul transportations from the Arabian Gulf and West Africa, and sometimes from North Africa and the North Sea.
Capesize cargo vessels too big to pass through the Panama or Suez canals. These ships are capable to travel cargo via Cape Horn or via Cape of Good Hope. Vessels of type capesize generally transport iron ore and coal able to work in deep-water terminals.
300000 – 550000 DWT Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC) is a crude oil tanker. These are the biggest vessels in movement and are used for transporting crude oil on long haul routes from the Arabian Gulf to Europe, America and the Far East, via the Cape of Good Hope. These ships need custom built terminals for loading and discharge.